Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by , is a clustering of at least three of the five (unfold into nine combination) following medical conditions:
* abdominal (central) obesity (cf. TOFI)
* elevated blood pressure
* elevated fasting plasma glucose
* high serum triglycerides
* low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (i.e., hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in the overproduction of the hormone glucagon.
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of artificial vanilla flavorings and is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
Endemic goitre is a type of goitre that is associated with dietary iodine deficiency.
In pathology, an apudoma is an endocrine tumour that arises from an APUD cell from structures such as the ampulla of Vater,.
X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) (also known as "Steroid sulfatase deficiency," and "X-linked recessive ichthyosis") (from the Ancient Greek 'ichthys' meaning 'fish') is a skin condition caused by the hereditary deficiency of the steroid sulfatase (STS) enzyme that affects 1 in 2000 to 1 in 6000 males.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus (predominantly type 2) in which high blood sugars cause severe dehydration, increases in osmolarity (relative concentration of solute) and a high risk of complications, coma and death.
Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
Bone resorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood.
Polydipsia is excessive thirst or excess drinking.
Selenium deficiency is relatively rare in healthy well-nourished individuals.
Empty sella syndrome
Empty sella syndrome (abbreviated ESS) is where the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened, filling the sella turcica, or "Turkish Saddle", with cerebrospinal fluid on imaging instead of the normal pituitary.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid /ˈθaɪrɔɪd/, is an endocrine gland in the throat, and consists of two connected lobes.
Hyperaldosteronism, also aldosteronism, is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Somatostatinoma is a malignant tumor of the delta cells of the endocrine pancreas that produces somatostatin.
Insulin (medication) is the use of insulin and similar proteins as a medication to treat disease.
Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (abbreviated as THDOC; 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one), also referred to as allotetrahydrocorticosterone, is an endogenous neurosteroid.
11-Deoxycortisol, also known as cortodoxone (INN, USAN, BAN), as well as 17α-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone, 17α,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, and cortexolone, is a glucocorticoid steroid hormone.
17α-Hydroxypregnenolone is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position.
Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.
In medicine (endocrinology), hypoaldosteronism refers to decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone.
Impaired glucose tolerance
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy/dysplasia (APECED), autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, Whitaker syndrome, or candidiasis-hypoparathyroidism–Addison's disease syndrome, is a subtype of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (autoimmune polyglandular syndrome) in which multiple endocrine glands dysfunction as a result of autoimmunity.
Epsilon cells (ε-cells) are endocrine cells found in the Islets of Langerhans and produce the hormone ghrelin.
11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is the name of a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ ⇌ an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.
Wolfram syndrome, also called DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic disorder that causes childhood-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness as well as various other possible disorders.
Late-onset hypogonadism is a rare condition in older men, characterized by measurably low testosterone levels and clinical symptoms mostly of a sexual nature, including decreased desire for sex, fewer spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure.
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, with as a result an excessively low pH.
An insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin.
Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn's syndrome, is excess production of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands resulting in low renin levels.
Myxedema coma is a state of decompensated hypothyroidism.
17Beta Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (EC 22.214.171.124, beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 17-ketoreductase, 17beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 17β-HSD, 17-ketosteroid oxidoreductases, HSD17B, 17-ketosteroid reductases, 17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyse the dehydrogenation of 17-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis.
Pregnenolone (3β-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one), also known as P5, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency
11β-Hydroxylase deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (11β-OH CAH) is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from a defect in the gene encoding the enzyme steroid 11β-hydroxylase which mediates the final step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
Metanephrine (metadrenaline) is a metabolite of epinephrine (adrenaline) created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on epinephrine.
Thyroid peroxidase or thyroperoxidase (TPO) is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid where it is secreted into colloid.
Nesidioblastosis is a controversial medical term for hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia attributed to excessive function of pancreatic beta cells with an abnormal microscopic appearance.
Lipodystrophy is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or degenerative conditions of the body's adipose tissue.
Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is a condition that mimics hypoaldosteronism.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or DHEA-S is a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypokalemia (abnormally low levels of potassium).
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
A parathyroid adenoma is a benign tumor of the parathyroid gland.
A adrenal adenoma is a benign tumor of the glandular type (adenoma) in the adrenal gland.
5α-Reductase deficiency (5-ARD) is an autosomal recessive intersex condition caused by a mutation of the 5α reductase type II gene.
Myxedema or myxoedema is a term used synonymously with severe hypothyroidism.
Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure.
Diabetic nephropathy (or diabetic kidney disease) is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the kidneys' glomeruli.
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an endocrine disorder that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth.
Pseudohyperaldosteronism (also pseudoaldosteronism) is a medical condition that mimics hyperaldosteronism.
"Striae" is also a general term referring to thin, narrow grooves or channels, or a thin line or band especially if several of them are parallel or close together.
Pregnane is, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
The Great Pheromone Myth
The Great Pheromone Myth is a book on pheromones and their application to chemosensation in mammals by Richard Doty, director of the University of Pennsylvania's Smell and Taste Center in Philadelphia.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement or as contrast medium.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems.
(Not to be confused with Thyroxine-binding globulin, a carrier protein responsible for carrying the thyroid hormones in the blood.) Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.
Resistin also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cysteine-rich adipose-derived peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the RETN gene.
Androgen replacement therapy
Androgen replacement therapy (ART), often referred to as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), is a class of hormone replacement therapy in which androgens, often testosterone, are replaced.
Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition.
Our Stolen Future
Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story is a 1996 book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers.
Society for Endocrinology
The Society for Endocrinology is an international membership organisation and registered charity representing scientists, clinicians and nurses who work with hormones.
The Endocrine Society is a professional, international medical organization in the field of endocrinology and metabolism, founded in 1916 as The Association for the Study of Internal Secretions.
Mecasermin (INN) (trade name Increlex) is recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), which is used for the long-term treatment of growth failure in children with severe primary IGF-I deficiency.